Blood Pressure

DEFINITION: Blood pressure (BP), sometimes referred to as arterial blood pressure, is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, “blood pressure” usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The blood pressure in the circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart. Differences in mean blood pressure are responsible for blood flow from one location to another in the circulation. The rate of mean blood flow depends on the resistance to flow presented by the blood vessels. Mean blood pressure decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries and capillaries due to viscous losses of energy. Mean blood pressure drops over the whole circulation, although most of the fall occurs along the small arteries and arterioles. Gravity affects blood pressure via hydrostatic forces (e.g., during standing) and valves in veins, breathing, and pumping from contraction of skeletal muscles also influence blood pressure in veins.

Blood pressure is of two types : high blood pressure  and low blood pressure.

High blood pressure:

Definition:

High blood pressure  is known as hypertension.it is defined as  pumping of the blood by the heart towards the narrower arteries  with high pressure results in hypertension.

It is the condition that increases the risk for heart attack ,stroke,kidney failure, coronary heart disease and other serious problems.

The untreated high pressure results in damage of vital organs and blood pressure.

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