Heart Murmurs: Causes & Risk Factors

Murmurs are blowing, whooshing, or rasping sounds produced by turbulent blood flow through the heart valves or near the heart.

Causes & Risk Factors
Heart murmurs can be caused by:

Aortic regurgitation, Aortic stenosis, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis), Mitral regurgitation, acute Mitral regurgitation – chronic, Mitral stenosis, Pulmonary regurgitation (backflow of blood into the right ventricle, caused by failure of the pulmonary valve to close completely), Pulmonary stenosis, Tricuspid regurgitation and Tricuspid stenosis.

Heart murmurs in children are more likely to be caused by:
Anomalous pulmonary venous return (an abnormal formation of the pulmonary veins), Atrial septal defect (ASD), Coarctation of the aorta, Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

It may be noted that children often have murmurs as a normal part of development. These murmurs do not require treatment, and may include:

Pulmonary flow murmurs, Still’s murmur and Venous hum

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