Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional,social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.
Developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind identified three main parenting styles in early child development: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive.
Maccoby and Martin expanded the styles to four: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful.
These four styles of parenting involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness on the one hand and demand and control on the other. Each parenting style has a different impact on children.
Authoritarian parenting style can be very rigid and strict. It is mostly patriarchical in nature and everything is often decided by the father. Parents who use this style have a strict set of rules and expectations; if rules are not followed it ends up with punishment.
There is usually no explanation of giving the punishment just that the children are in trouble and should listen accordingly.
This parenting style and parents who use a more authoritarian approach with power assertion and the involvement of physical punishment with little emotions of comfort and affection are more likely to produce a child with deviant tendencies.
Authoritative parenting style consists of following the same rules as the authoritarian parents. With having strict rules and expectations however there is more open communication with parents and children in the authoritative style. They listen more to the child. When children have problems with rules and they are broken these parents tend to be more receptive. Instead of trying to rule the child’s life they are less restrictive parents but still assertive.
Permissive parenting style is often the style parents try to stay away from. There is not much structure here for children, and parents often do not set rules or have guidelines for the child. They do not have many expectations for the children; they avoid conflict and are more nurturing to the child. They are more lenient when it comes to misbehaviour and often do not punish the children for wrongdoing.
However, parents adapted to this style also end up with their children having a hard time communicating with them about things their children find important. Children with less communication with parents tend to have more negative behaviours.
Uninvolved parenting style is exactly how uninvolved is defined, parents are often absent emotionally and sometimes even. They have no expectations of the child. They do not communicate or nurture the child. They provide everything the child needs for survival without engaging the child.
They are not interested in their schooling other than making sure they go and they are not interested in extracurricular activities they may be involved in. There is often a large gap between parents and children with this parenting style.
Children with little or no communication with parents tended to more often be the victims of other children’s deviant behaviour and involved in some deviance themselves
There is no single or definitive model of parenting. What may be right for one family or one child may not be suitable for another.
Parenting strategies as well as behaviours/ideals of what parents expect whether communicated verbally and/or non-verbally also play a significant role in a child’s development.