Rhinoplasty is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose, by resolving nasal trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impairment, and a failed primary rhinoplasty.
In the surgeries — closed rhinoplasty and open rhinoplasty — an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist), a maxillofacial surgeon (jaw, face, and neck specialist), or a plastic surgeon, creates a functional, aesthetic, and facially proportionate nose by separating the nasal skin and the soft tissues from theosseo-cartilaginous nasal framework, correcting them as required for form and function, suturing the incisions, and applying a stent to immobilize the corrected nose to ensure the proper healing of the surgical cuts.
Surgical suitability — the medical and mental histories of the patient
To determine the patient’s suitability for undergoing a rhinoplasty procedure, the surgeon clinically evaluates him or her with a complete medical history to determine his or her physical and psychological health. The prospective patient must explain to the physician–surgeon the functional and aesthetic nasal problems that he or she suffers. The surgeon asks about the ailments’ symptoms and their duration, past surgical interventions, allergies, drugs use and drugs abuse (prescription and commercial medications), and a general medical history. Furthermore, additional to physical suitability is psychological suitability — the patient’s psychological motive for undergoing nose surgery is critical to the surgeon’s pre-operative evaluation of the patient.
The complete physical examination of the rhinoplasty patient determines if he or she is physically fit to undergo and tolerate the physiologic stresses of nose surgery. The examination comprehends every existing physical problem, and a consultation with an anaesthesiologist, if warranted by the patient’s medical data. Specific facial and nasal evaluations record the patient’s skin-type, existing surgical scars, and the symmetry and asymmetry of the aesthetic nasal subunits.
The external and internal nasal examination concentrates upon the anatomic thirds of the nose — upper section, middle section, lower section — specifically noting their structures; the measures of the nasal angles (at which the external nose projects from the face); and the physical characteristics of the naso-facial bony and soft tissues.
The internal examination evaluates the condition of the nasal septum, the internal and external nasal valves, the turbinates, and the nasal lining, paying especial attention to the structure and the form of the nasal dorsum and the tip of the nose.