Signs and Symptoms of Malnutrition

Signs and symptoms of malnutrition (subnutrition) include:

  • Loss of fat (adipose tissue)
  • Breathing difficulties, a higher risk of respiratory failure
  • Depression
  • Higher risk of complications after surgery
  • Higher risk of hypothermia – abnormally low body temperature
  • The total number of some types of white blood cells falls; consequently, the immune system is weakened, increasing the risk of infections.
  • Higher susceptibility to feeling cold
  • Longer healing times for wounds
  • Longer recover times from infections
  • Longer recovery from illnesses
  • Lower sex drive
  • Problems with fertility
  • Reduced muscle mass
  • Reduced tissue mass
  • Tiredness, fatigue, or apathy
  • Irritability
  • In more severe cases:
  • Skin may become thin, dry, inelastic, pale, and cold
  • Eventually, as fat in the face is lost, the cheeks look hollow and the eyes sunken
  • Hair becomes dry and sparse, falling out easily
  • Sometimes, severe malnutrition may lead to unresponsiveness (stupor)
  • If calorie deficiency continues for long enough, there may be heart, liver and respiratory failure
  • Total starvation is said to be fatal within 8 to 12 weeks (no calorie consumption at all)

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