Types of Diabetes

After cancer, diabetes is the deadly disease that causes million of deaths around the world.
The following are the different types of diabetes that affect people.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D): The body stops producing insulin or produces too little insulin to regulate blood glucose level.

  • Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed during childhood or adolescence.
  • Type 1 diabetes can occur in an older individual because of destruction of the pancreas by alcohol, disease, or removal by surgery.
  • It also results from progressive failure of the pancreatic beta cells, the only cell type that produces significant amounts of insulin.
  • People with type 1 diabetes require insulin treatment daily to sustain life.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D): Although the pancreas still secretes insulin, the body of someone with type 2 diabetes is partially or completely unable to use this insulin. People with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they fail to secrete enough insulin to cope with their higher demands.

  • At least 90% of adult individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed in adulthood, usually after age 45 years.
  • Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise, and oral medications. However, more than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar levels at some point in the course of their illness.

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs during the second half of pregnancy.
Although gestational diabetes typically resolves after delivery of the baby, a woman who develop gestational diabetes is more likely than other women to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.
Metabolic syndrome (also referred to as syndrome X) is a set of abnormalities in which insulin-resistant diabetes (type 2 diabetes) is almost always present along with hypertension (high blood pressure), high fat levels in the blood (increased serum lipids, predominant elevation of LDL cholesterol, decreased HDL cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides), central obesity, and abnormalities in blood clotting and inflammatory responses.
A high rate of cardiovascular disease is associated with metabolic syndrome.
Prediabetes is a common condition related to diabetes. In people with prediabetes, the blood sugar level is higher than normal but not yet high enough to be considered diagnostic of diabetes.
Prediabetes increases a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or stroke. It can typically be reversed (without insulin or medication) with lifestyle changes such as losing a modest amount of weight and increasing physical activity levels.

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